18th Century Style Jabot or Cravat

The Purim schpiel was based on Hamilton, and the costumes Joe and I altered/reused/repurposed/added to were 18th Century style, more specifically Revolutionary War style.  From scratch I made several jabots or cravats that I copied from one I found that buttons on to a blouse.  They aren’t 100% authentic by far, but if you need that quick final touch on a men’s Revulutionary War or French court or basically 1740s to 1780 costume, below are photos and instructions.

You’ll need some white or ivory lace or eyelet lace trim that’s already gathered up (as opposed to the totally flat kind, 1 3/4″ to 2 1/4″ wide, and probably only about 60″ of it, as well as less than a yard of white or ivory cotton, quilting weight or lighter, matching thread, and either some velcro or snaps.

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Here is the jabot from the original blouse.

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They sewed a ruffle to a rectangular base of the same fabric.

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The back, where you can see it was sewn in a zigzag pattern.

First cut a neck band 5 or 6″ wide and the wearer’s neck measurement long plus 2 1/2″ for overlap and so it isn’t skin tight (people’s necks are from 13 or 14″ to 17 or 18″). Cut a base for the lace 7″ wide and 8″ tall.

Make a narrow hem on all 4 sides of the neck band.  Fold the base in half lengthwise, stitch around the bottom and long side, trim corners, turn right side out, and press.

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Starting at the bottom of the base, sew the lace trim in a diagonal pattern all the way across the base and work your way up to the top.  Fold extra under at the bottom so the raw edge doesn’t stick out.  I didn’t finish my edge, but it’ll look nicer folded under.  At the top go straight across with a bit folded under.  Use the very top because that’s the seam allowance for when you attach it to the neck band.

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Tack the top fold of lace to the base because it will want to flip up when it’s worn.

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Here are some photos of the finished lace base part.

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And the kinds of trim you can use (also regular lace trim).

Gather the ends of the neck band and two places between the ends.  When you look at paintings and fashion plates of men’s costume of the time, the part around their necks usually looks like a scarf that’s wider than their necks are tall.  Sew the velcro or snaps to the ends, overlapping the ends.  Then sew the lace and base piece to the center of the bottom long side of the neck band.

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How wide the trim is affects how much you’ll need.  Wider trim uses less, narrower trim uses more.

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While not perfectly authentic, it will work if you’re in a hurry.  I think it took me less than 30 minutes to cut and sew one.

Comments, questions, suggestions?  Yes, please!  Thanks for reading!

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Straight Skirt with Vent, Welt Pockets, and Contoured Waistband

After too long of not posting anything, I have something to finally post.  I was in a rear ending car accident at the end of October (right before Halloween so I didn’t even get to dress up), and couldn’t do much of anything anyway.  I still can only do so much per day.

In this post, I walk you through how to sew a straight skirt that’s just below the knee.  It has a contoured waistband, meaning it’s made from curved pieces, not just a long rectangle, welt pockets in the back (I don’t know why because I’ll probably never use them), and a vent at the center back hem, like a blazer would have and I think is also called a kick pleat.  Or maybe those are similar but distinct things.

I made the skirt out of burgundy woven 100% cotton, the kind from the quilting section of the fabric store.

Pieces are skirt front, skirt back x 2 (left and right), welt x 2, under welt x 2, welt side pocket bag x 2, under welt side pocket back x 2, front waistband, back waistband x 2 (left and right), front waistband facing, back waistband facing x 2 (left and right).  Plus interfacing for the welts, under welts, waistband pieces and waistband facing pieces, and two 1″ x 7″ pieces to go on the back of the skirt where the pockets will be.

Regarding the pattern: I made my own pattern from my own sloper with one dart in front and one in back (as opposed to two, so really the skirt has 4 darts total instead of 8), the pockets, contoured waistband, and vent at the hem.  You can use your own pattern or buy one.  If your pattern doesn’t have welt pockets, you can make the pieces for them.  They’re all just rectangles.  The welt is 7″ wide by 3″ high, the under welt is 7 x 2 1/2″, the pocket bag pieces are 7″ x however deep you want the pocket to be, with the under welt side being half an inch shorter.  The welt and under welt interfacing pieces can be the same size as the welt and under welt, but are generally 1/8″ smaller all the way around (6 3/4″ x 2 3/4″ and 6 3/4″ x 2 1/4″).

Sewing:

First fuse or sew your interfacing to the corresponding fabric pieces.

Sew the darts on the skirt front, press, and set aside.  I always pattern and press my darts to center front if they’re vertical darts and downward if they’re diagonal or horizontal.

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Sew the center back seam from where the bottom of the zipper will be to the end of the diagonal part of the vent and sew the darts.  Press.

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Finish the edges of the vent, the vertical center back part, press to one side (I think I pressed mine so it’d be to the right as worn), and top stitch the diagonal part through all layers of fabric.  (Because of the amount of fabric I had, I had to make part of the vent a separate piece.)

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Finish the center back seam, if you haven’t already.  Insert the zipper at the top of the center back seam.  Even after sewing for 30 years, I still can’t get the last step of top stitching the zipper to turn out smooth and even.  Go figure.

Now it’s time to put in the pockets.  I demonstrated this in my posts How to Make a Nice Men’s Vest but here it is again.

Mark on the wrong side of the skirt back where the pockets will be, which will be over where you put the 1″ x 7″ pieces of interfacing (if you’re using sew-in interfacing, you will have basted the interfacing in and you can remove the stitches later).  From the right side, put a pin on each end of the pocket opening (5″ apart so there is one inch on each end of the interfacing).

Press the welt pieces as shown.  (The pressing jig is made from a Manila file folder and its base is 1″ wide and more than 7″ long.  The flap is slightly less than 1″ wide.)

Mark on each welt piece 1″ from each end.  Fold one of the welts and pin it to the right side of the skirt back.  Stitch 1/4″ from the fold from 1″ mark to 1″ mark.

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Fold that part up out of the way and fold up the other pressed fold.  Stitch that between the markers 1/4″ from the fold.  Check to make sure your stitching lines are the same length and add to one end or another of either line to make them the same.  Then, holding the welt edges out of the way, cut through the welt and skirt back between the stitching lines.  1/2″ to 3/4″ from the ends of the lines, cut diagonally to the stitching but not through it.

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Turn the welt to the wrong side through where you just cut it.  Press.  Yes, you will have folded bits at the ends.  They’re supposed to be there.  Then stitch the welt side pocket bag piece to the long side of the welt that’s toward the hem.  Sew the under welts and the under welt side pocket bags to each other along a long side and press the seams toward the pocket bag.

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Through all layers except the skirt back itself, stitch the triangle ends you cut.

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Lay the under welt/pocket bag pieces on the welt/pocket bag sections.  Pin and stitch all the way around, keeping the skirt back out of the way, with a 1/4″ seam allowance.  Start on the bottom of a side so you stitch the bottom of the pocket bag last.  You might have to trim off a bit of the pocket bag at the bottom like silly me had to do because I accidentally sewed the under welt side to the welt and the welt side to the under welt.  Press then tack the top of the welt/under welt layers to the dart intake.

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Once the pockets are done, you can sew the skirt front to the skirt back at the side seams and sew the waistband front and backs and the waistband facing front and backs together at the side seams.

Finish the skirt side seams.  Press them and the waistband and waistband facing seams.  Stitch the long edge of the waistband to the top of the skirt, right sides together, including top of zipper tape.  Clip curves.  Press waistband and seam allowances upward.

Stitch the short edge of the waistband facing to the short edge of the waistband, pivoting at ends and stitching down to long edge.  Clip corners and curves.  Turn to inside and press so that the facing goes down, covering the waistband and seam allowances.  Press the long edge of the facing under and stitch to the waistband.  Press. 

Make a buttonhole and sew on a button at center back or use hooks and eyes.

Press and sew the hem.

I don’t know why I don’t have photos of all that.  When I get them I’ll post because I cut out two other skirts.

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The finished front and back.

Please leave comments, questions, and suggestions.  Thanks for reading!

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Photos of Many Things I’ve Sewn

I don’t really have anything to say, no really in-depth article about how to sew something, but I finally found some time in my somewhat chaotic life to post some photos of the many things I’ve sewn over the years. Uncredited photos I took.  The ones that say “Photo by” and no name are by a man whose name I’ll add when I find it.  These were taken from around 2011 to present and are not an exhaustive portrait of my work.

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For the Beginner #4: some seam finishes and darts

Here is another post for beginners: #4, a few more seam finishes and darts with a single end and double ended.

There are several ways to finish a seam, depending on your fabric, the level of quality you want the garment (or other item) to have, and how much the fabric cost or how much you’re charging (if you’re making it for someone else).  I already showed you how to sew a plain seam that is unfinished and a French seam, as well as how to bias bind a seam.  (You might also wish to see Some Tips and Sewing Tips 2.)  What you’ll see most commonly is a seam that has the edges of the seam allowance overlocked (the proper term for serged).  If you don’t have an overlock machine, you can use a lockstitch machine to zigzag the edge or clean finish the edge.  First sew a plain seam then finish the edges of the seam allowance.

Top: overlocked seam (you don't have to press the seam open--you can press it to one side or the other).  Bottom left, zigzagged seam.  Bottom right: clean finish seam.

Top: overlocked seam (you don’t have to press the seam open–you can press it to one side or the other). Bottom left, zigzagged seam. Bottom right: clean finish seam.

 

The overlocked seam.  Simply run the edge of the seam allowance through the machine.

The overlocked seam. Simply run the edge of the seam allowance through the machine.

 

To zigzag the edge, simply set your machine to the zigzag stitch and run the edge through the machine.  To make the clean finish edge, fold the edge of the seam allowance under and stitch with the running/straight stitch.

To zigzag the edge, simply set your machine to the zigzag stitch and run the edge through the machine. To make the clean finish edge, fold the edge of the seam allowance under and stitch with the running/straight stitch.

 

What the under side of the clean finish seam allowance looks like.

What the under side of the clean finish seam allowance looks like.

 

One of the ways that garments are fitted to the body is with darts.  For a single-ended dart, you straight stitch starting at the wide end of the dart and go toward the point.  Chain off–sew off the edge of the fabric without back stitching (stitching while holding the reverse button), leaving a tail around 2″ long.  For a double-ended dart, you can start at the wide part and go to the ends in 2 steps, or you can sew it in one step.

Most of the time, I first mark my darts with tracing paper and a tracing wheel, like on the right, but sometimes in a production environment, you'll see the dart marked with 2 notches at the edge of the fabric and a hole punched below.  In this case, you stitch to 1/4" past the hole.

Most of the time, I first mark my darts with tracing paper and a tracing wheel, like on the right, but sometimes in a production environment, you’ll see the dart marked with 2 notches at the edge of the fabric and a hole punched below. In this case, you stitch to 1/4″ past the hole.

 

Fold the fabric in half and stitch from the wide end to the point and chain off.

Fold the fabric in half and stitch from the wide end to the point and chain off.

 

The darts from the wrong side, stitched and pressed.  With a real dart (as opposed to this sample), a bit of fabric is at the top of the dart to line it up with the rest of the fabric edge when it's stitched.

The darts from the wrong side, stitched and pressed. With a real dart (as opposed to this sample), a bit of fabric is at the top of the dart to line it up with the rest of the fabric edge when it’s stitched.

 

The single-ended darts from the right side.  I used this striped fabric so you can see how the grain changes.  Make sure you fold your fabric so you have right sides together.

The single-ended darts from the right side. I used this striped fabric so you can see how the grain changes. Make sure you fold your fabric so you have right sides together.

 

A double-ended dart, which would be on a garment like a shirt or a dress that has no waistline seams.  The single-ended darts are usually seen at the waistlines of skirts and pants.

A double-ended dart, which would be on a garment like a shirt or a dress that has no waistline seams. The single-ended darts are usually seen at the waistlines of skirts and pants.

 

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The double-ended dart is stitched, above.

I cut the dart intake through the center so it will lie more flatly when pressed.

I cut the dart intake through the center so it will lie more flatly when pressed.

 

The double-ended dart from the right side.  Note change in the grain lines.

The double-ended dart from the right side. Note change in the grain lines.

 

Here, the change in the grain lines is more dramatic.

Here, the change in the grain lines is more dramatic.

 

As always, let me know if you have any comments or suggestions or need any clarification.

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Sewing a single welt pocket

Here is how to sew a single welt pocket, as in a pocket that has a single welt, not a double welt like I’ve shown in my men’s vest posts.  It’s a bit easier than a double welt, but not by much.  Whether you use a single or double welt pocket on a vest, a pair of pants or whatever is pretty much up to you.  If you’re doing menswear, sometimes you go with what they’ve been doing for years, but if it’s for yourself, do what you want, I guess.  I have used woven fabrics.  I have never done this with stretch wovens (there are plenty of stretch woven pants with single welt pockets), nor with knits (I’ve never seen that, but that doesn’t mean it doesn’t exist).

I apologize that the photos aren’t great.  I used my phone, which doesn’t give the best photos.  Some day I’ll have someone do better photos, at least of all these different seams, darts, pockets, etc.

These instructions are from Fashion Incubator.

Please comment, ask questions, etc.

Once you know how wide you want the finished pocket opening to be, cut the welt (the off white piece on the left) to be 2" longer than that.  If you want a pocket with a 6" opening, cut the welt 8 x 3".  Cut an underwelt the same length but 1/2" shorter.  In this case, it's 8 x 2 1/2" and the maroon piece. Cut a piece of interfacing for the welt 1/4" smaller than the welt (7 3/4" x 2 3/4") and a piece for the underwelt 1/4" smaller (7 3/4" x 2 1/4"); they're the white pieces on the right.  Cut the pocket bag pieces to be the same width (8" in this case) and the depth you need.  For the vests I made, they're only 2-3" deep.  For a breast pocket, at least that deep, but maybe deep enough for a pen or a glasses case.  The green pocket bag piece is the shorter one, 3 1/2", and gets sewn to the underwelt.  The tan piece gets sewn to the welt and is 4".

Once you know how wide you want the finished pocket opening to be, cut the welt (the off white piece on the left) to be 2″ longer than that. If you want a pocket with a 6″ opening, cut the welt 8 x 3″. Cut an underwelt the same length but 1/2″ shorter. In this case, it’s 8 x 2 1/2″ and the maroon piece. Cut a piece of interfacing for the welt 1/4″ smaller than the welt (7 3/4″ x 2 3/4″) and a piece for the underwelt 1/4″ smaller (7 3/4″ x 2 1/4″); they’re the white pieces on the right. Cut the pocket bag pieces to be the same width (8″ in this case) and the depth you need. For the vests I made, they’re only 2-3″ deep. For a breast pocket, at least that deep, but maybe deep enough for a pen or a glasses case. The green pocket bag piece is the shorter one, 3 1/2″, and gets sewn to the underwelt. The tan piece gets sewn to the welt and is 4″.

Fuse the interfacing to the welt and underwelt.  If your garment doesn't already have interfacing where the pocket needs to go (you would have already put interfacing on a men's jacket or vest or you should have), add a piece where the pocket will go.  It doesn't have to be as large as I've shown, but it does need to be the same width as the welt.  If you don't have or don't want to use fusible interfacing, use sew on kind (actual interfacing or some fabric that would work).  Mark on the interfacing of the garment (the blue fabric) where the ends of the pocket will go (my dots are 6" apart).  Mark on the wrong side of the welt a set of lines (use a disappearing ink or chalk, not the ball point pen I used for this sample).  The marks for the welt are 1" from each end (the vertical lines) and two parallel horizontal lines.  The lower line is 1" from the bottom of the fabric and the upper line is 1/2" from that.  Now rotate the welt 180 degrees so that the long line 1" from the edge is at the top.

Fuse the interfacing to the welt and underwelt. If your garment doesn’t already have interfacing where the pocket needs to go (you would have already put interfacing on a men’s jacket or vest or you should have), add a piece where the pocket will go. It doesn’t have to be as large as I’ve shown, but it does need to be the same width as the welt. If you don’t have or don’t want to use fusible interfacing, use sew on kind (actual interfacing or some fabric that would work). Mark on the interfacing of the garment (the blue fabric) where the ends of the pocket will go (my dots are 6″ apart). Mark on the wrong side of the welt a set of lines (use a disappearing ink or chalk, not the ball point pen I used for this sample). The marks for the welt are 1″ from each end (the vertical lines) and two parallel horizontal lines. The lower line is 1″ from the bottom of the fabric and the upper line is 1/2″ from that. Now rotate the welt 180 degrees so that the long line 1″ from the edge is at the top.

Put pins through the dots on the garment interfacing to mark where the pocket goes on the right side.  Put the welt on the garment, right sides together.  Pin it like this.

Put pins through the dots on the garment interfacing to mark where the pocket goes on the right side. Put the welt on the garment, right sides together. Pin it like this.

Stitch on the two long parallel lines.  Start at one of the short lines and end at the other.  Make sure your stitching ends up the same length.

Stitch on the two long parallel lines. Start at one of the short lines and end at the other. Make sure your stitching ends up the same length.  Oops, the yellow thread doesn’t show up very well.

Here is the stitching from the garment side.

Here is the stitching from the garment side.

Press the long lower side away from you at the stitching.  Also press up the ends that aren't stitched.

Press the long lower side away from you at the stitching. Also press up the ends that aren’t stitched.

Press down the other long side.

Press down the other long side.

Cut between the lines you stitched.  See how the cutting ends up angling toward the stitching at the ends?  You want to cut it this way.  Go up to but not through the stitching.

Cut between the lines you stitched. See how the cutting ends up angling toward the stitching at the ends? You want to cut it this way. Go up to but not through the stitching.

The cut from the other side.

The cut from the other side.

Turn the welt to the inside of the garment.  Check both sides.  If you haven't cut far enough, the corners of the opening will look puckered.  You can snip a bit more.

Turn the welt to the inside of the garment. Check both sides. If you haven’t cut far enough, the corners of the opening will look puckered. You can snip a bit more.

Lift up the edges of the welt and press open the seams.

Lift up the edges of the welt and press open the seams.

Press the upper half of the welt up, pulling a bit to the inside, as you would a facing.  Fold the lower half so it will fill the opening and try to keep it an evenly straight line.  Don't fold too far up or you'll have a hard time getting your hand into it.  If I had known, I would have used a cotton that would have held the pressing a bit better.

Press the upper half of the welt up, pulling a bit to the inside, as you would a facing. Fold the lower half so it will fill the opening and try to keep it an evenly straight line. Don’t fold too far up or you’ll have a hard time getting your hand into it. If I had known, I would have used a cotton that would have held the pressing a bit better.

Pull the garment aside like this with the welt right side down.  That triangle point is what you just cut.  Stitch on the line that was pressed.

Pull the garment aside like this with the welt right side down. That triangle point is what you just cut. Stitch on the line that was pressed.

Here, that triangle is stitched down.  Be careful to not catch the garment fabric in it.

Here, that triangle is stitched down. Be careful to not catch the garment fabric in it.

How stitching that triangle looks from the other side.

How stitching that triangle looks from the other side.

Sew the pocket bags to the welt and the underwelt with a 1/4" seam allowance.

Sew the pocket bags to the welt and the underwelt with a 1/4″ seam allowance.

Here, the pocket bags are  sewn to the welt and underwelt and pressed.  Since most pocket bags are lining fabric, which is usually fairly light, press the seam allowances toward the lining, away from the welt and underwelt.

Here, the pocket bags are sewn to the welt and underwelt and pressed. Since most pocket bags are lining fabric, which is usually fairly light, press the seam allowances toward the lining, away from the welt and underwelt.  (The gray between the welt and the blue is just a shadow.)

With the garment fabric on top, pin the underwelt/pocket bag unit to the welt/pocket bag unit, at least at the top corner.  Start stitching at the bottom of the pocket bag.  Go up to the top of the welt, pivot, go to the other end, pivot, go down the other side, pivot, and go across the bottom.  Use a 1/4" seam allowance.

With the garment fabric on top, pin the underwelt/pocket bag unit to the welt/pocket bag unit, at least at the top corner. Start stitching at the bottom of the pocket bag. Go up to the top of the welt, pivot, go to the other end, pivot, go down the other side, pivot, and go across the bottom. Use a 1/4″ seam allowance.

Here the welt and underwelt units are stitched together.  Keep the garment fabric out of the way.

Here the welt and underwelt units are stitched together. Keep the garment fabric out of the way.

Showing the welt side.

Showing the welt side.

Here is the finished pocket from the front.  As you can see, I wasn't that careful with pressing the fold in the welt evenly.  My ends still pucker a bit, but that is because the scrap I used for the welt is heavier than this blue poly-cotton.

Here is the finished pocket from the front. As you can see, I wasn’t that careful with pressing the fold in the welt evenly. My ends still pucker a bit, but that is because the scrap I used for the welt is heavier than this blue poly-cotton.

 

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Early 1860’s Civil War Era Chemise

My friends have been working on getting me into Civil War reenactment.  My friend Kay of Lavender’s Green Historical Costume loaned me her daughter’s costumes–chemise, drawers, corset, hoopskirt, petticoat, jacket, 3 dresses.  I just made another chemise because when you’re out in the heat and you’re wearing something right next to your skin, it can get damp and stinky, even with deodorant.  TMI?  Sorry!  It was very easy to make and I traced the original chemise…didn’t use a pattern.  I used white cotton (or cotton blend, not sure what it was) like the original and overlocked the seams instead of using a French seam or whatever they would have used back then.  I’d rather the outer layer look authentic then spend way too many hours hand sewing, which I’m slow at.

I carefully cut the fabric, taking into account that the front and back tucks made the chemise narrower, so I made sure to compensate for that.

Then I pressed where the tucks go.

The tucks don't go all the way down, so I pressed only the 7 inches that the original chemise has.

The tucks don’t go all the way down, so I pressed only the 7 inches that the original chemise has.

The back tucks are further apart, longer (10 inches), and wider (3/8" as opposed to 1/4").

The back tucks are further apart, longer (10 inches), and wider (3/8″ as opposed to 1/4″).

Here the tucks are stitched and pressed.

Here the tucks are stitched and pressed.

Next I attached the sleeves and sewed the side/underarm seams.

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Hemming the sleeves and the bottom of the chemise was next.  The sleeves have a narrow hem.  The bottom was around 1 1/4 inches.

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The neckband was next.  It was just a strip of on-grain fabric around 2 inches wide, not on the bias like I would have expected.

I sewed on the neckband and pressed it upward.

I sewed on the neckband and pressed it upward.

Then I pressed under the other edge and sewed the neckband down.

Then I pressed under the other edge and sewed the neckband down.

Here are photos of the finished chemise, front and back.

Front

Front

Back

Back

No, it isn’t very long, only to just around my knees.

Kay also showed me some trim on one of her antique garments from the Victorian era.  It looks scalloped, but the way to do it is make gathering stitches on a strip of fabric, but instead of straight along the whole strip, you go diagonally from edge to edge, like a giant zigzag.  When you pull in the gathers, it looks scalloped.

Stitch the gathers.

Stitch the gathers.

Pull the thread into a ruffle.

Pull the thread into a ruffle.

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Regency era vest

[Edit 7/26/15: New photos!]

Here is another post about vests.  I do hope you aren’t tired of seeing posts about vests.  The silver one has a higher neckline than the previous ones, but is constructed in pretty much the same way.  The white one is a bit different from previous entries, as it’s a bit of a different style.  It is double-breasted and has a collar.  I made them for my friend Orange (he did the buttons and buttonholes because my machine needs to be serviced).

Front of silver dupioni silk vest with high neck and welt pockets with flaps

Front of silver dupioni silk vest with high neck and welt pockets with flaps

Back of silver dupioni silk vest, showing panels with eyelets and lacing for a better fit

Back of silver dupioni silk vest, showing panels with eyelets and lacing for a better fit

Front of white cotton damask vest with high neck and wide collar (Regency era style), double-breasted front, and welt pockets

Front of white cotton damask vest with high neck and wide collar (Regency era style), double-breasted front, and welt pockets

Another shot of the front of the white vest

Another shot of the front of the white vest

3/4 view of the white vest

3/4 view of the white vest

Back of the white damask vest with panels and lacing

Back of the white damask vest with panels and lacing

Detail of the welt pocket on the white vest

Detail of the welt pocket on the white vest

The difference in the pattern compared to ones that aren’t double breasted is that there is a larger extension out from center front, away from the rest of the front, which creates a greater overlap.  Instead of a basically V-shaped neckline, the neckline goes all the way to the wearer’s neck and a collar is sewn then inserted between the body and the facing.  Unfortunately, I neglected to take step-by-step photos of the sewing process of this vest and the silver one.  (But do see my vest entries, part one, part two, part three, as the majority of sewing is the same.)

The collar of this vest will stand up when the vest is buttoned all the way.  You will want to make a mock up/fitting muslin, of course, so you can fit the vest to the wearer.  The collar is a wide (2 or 3 inches) rectangle that is very slightly curved from about the shoulder seam to the center front and is one piece.  You might need to experiment and see if you’ll have to make it out of 3 pieces (back and each front) because you might need some curving in at the sides.

When you have gotten to the point where you’ll sew on the facing is the time to add the collar.  It gets sandwiched between the facing and the fronts (but just sewn to the back, not the back lining, which will cover the seam up later).  The collar and under collar both need to be interfaced.  So you’ll want to make sure the collar piece(s) and under collar piece(s) are sewn together first (any seams of collar and under collar, then collar to under collar, then clip corners and curves, understitch the long upper edge that is away from the neckline, and press the whole thing flat and right side out).  Make sure you pin the collar to the neckline so that the understitched under collar side will end up being on the inside of the vest.  Proceed with sewing the facing.  When the back lining piece gets sewn in, the collar is sandwiched between it and the back piece.  Proceed with the rest of the sewing, up to doing the buttons and buttonholes.

The buttonholes will be along the edge of the left front.  You can add one at the top and one at the bottom of the right front if the underlap will sag and show.  The buttons on the right front will correspond to the buttonholes on the left, and the ones for the underlap, and also sew non-functional buttons on the left front, as shown in the photos.

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